The Observers – Solar Report Archive – Observing the Frontier 2019


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The last 48 hours of solar activity is seen here. Learn about what you are seeing, and all the key data on this page in less than 1 hour.

Backup Solar Imager: GOES X-Rays [NOAA]


For the Article Links, Go To The YouTube Video

(Dec 9 1008UTC) Solar wind has plateaued at modest levels. New sunspots are crackling but not producing any significant solar flares.
(Dec 8 0949UTC) Solar wind is intensifying due to the coronal hole but only at modest levels. Further intensification is possible over the weekend, and we’ll be monitoring a bright region at the incoming limb for more sunspots.

Learn about solar flares here.
GOES Magnetometer SAT ENV Space Weather disruptions show as large spikes. Space Weather calm shows as smooth curves.
Solar Wind Telemetry (ACE) ACE MAG

Learn About Solar Wind Here
[Red] Negative Bz is Disruptive to Earth’s Magnetic Field
[Blue] Shows the Polar Angle of the Magnetic Field
[Orange] Avg. SW Density is 0.1-10 Protons/Cubic Centimeter
[Yellow] Avg. SW Speed is 350-400 Kilometers/Second
[Green] SW Temp over 500,000K is ‘High’

SAT ENV KP Index [0-3] Green - Stable/Calm Magnetosphere. [4] Yellow - Unstable Magnetosphere. [5+] Red - Geomagnetic Storm Conditions
SAT ENV GOES Proton Flux - This shows the High Energy Proton bombardment. The dotted line represents the " level 1 radiation storm" baseline and each incremental level upward is another level of storm conditions.
SAT ENV GOES Electron Flux This shows the High Energy Electron Bombardment. The radiation storm levels occur when the Red/Blue curves cross the dotted/hashed line. Each factor of 10 (next line up) represents a higher level of radiation storm.

If a solar eruption is ever ACTUALLY going to affect earth’s power grid, the satellites will be affected first. See the spacecraft hazards charts below:

The 6 charts above are simple. Green is good. Yellow is approaching charging levels. Red is satellite charging hazard. If you see lots of Red here and a KP of 9 following a large solar flare or other solar eruption (and then your internet and power go down) there is a chance the sun has taken it away.

ACE MAG The chart above shows the critical frequency of the F2 ionospheric layer. Also see the explanation for the TEC display to the right of this panel.
ACE MAG Quiet periods have smooth flat lines. The disruptions here are to the ionosphere.
ACE MAG This TEC chart is from the German Space Weather Application Center. With dozens of similar charts online.

Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) has moved to

The Three D-RAP Charts above show Atmosphere and Ionosphere Effect from Space Weather. Top chart – always show any flare irradiance. Center chart – shows effects at radio blackout levels. The bottom chart – lights up during major events.

ACE MAG This chart shows the forecasted and observed high energy electron bombardment in near-earth space.

Communications Conditions courtesy of

Long-Term Solar Progression

ACE MAG This shows the current sunspot number and tracks it since 2000. This cycle was weaker than most, one of the weakest on record. It appears we will soon descend into solar sunspot minimum, but on the descent we may see powerful (albeit fewer) solar flares.
ACE MAG Usually we can judge solar activity by sunspot number and solar flare magnitude but sometimes that is not the case. The sunspots can be inactive or the flares can be on the side of the sun, or there could be filament, coronal hole, nano flare or other activity. The radio flux is a great all-around measurement of activity.
ACE MAG A Year of solar wind from
ACE MAG A Year of electron flux from

This chart is yet another one from – it shows the current solar cycle sunspot counts compared to previous cycles.

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